Hello Folks! As promised, here is part II of our roundup of the most interesting breakthroughs in the world of science in the last couple of weeks. If you missed Part I, you can read it here. You will learn about mysterious brain cells of male roundworms, methods for remote-controlling cancer-fighting immune cells, the latest findings concerning Pluto by the New Horizons spacecraft, and much more.
And now, for the rest.
Making glues that work underwater has long been a challenge for chemical engineers. Since a long time, researchers have been trying to exploit their knowledge of marine mussels to overcome this problem. Mussels stick to rocks in shallow waters using thread-like processes and can withstand battering by heavy waves without losing their grip. They do this by using a family of proteins, called mussel foot proteins (mfps) which they secrete near their points of contact with the rocks. A lot of interest, therefore, lies in uncovering the special properties of mfps that allow them to adhere underwater. Chemically, the main suspects are modified amino acids called catechols, the presence of large numbers of positive and negative charges in the same protein, and non-polar, hydrophobic elements interspersed throughout. Researchers at University of California, Santa Barbara, decided to strip away all the extraneous stuff and design a single small molecule that would incorporate all these components. This they achieved by chemically modifying a zwitterionic (having both positive and negative charges) detergent molecule to include the important catechol group alongside a few other small modifications. When this new material was tested for its stickiness, is was found to be highly adhesive, much stronger than the mfp proteins themselves, and could easily stick underwater forming a thin, uniform layer. According to the scientists, this might have important applications in the field of nanofabrication.